Polls Details



Why only once a year is Valentine's Day
Somehow it should not be that way
While Cupid shoots arrows when he please
To strike whenever lovers together he sees
Those many little special things we can do
Any time to show that our affection is true
Should be seen and felt throughout the year
So to prove that we are as we like to appear
Not only to special ones whom we love the most
But to brighten for others to whom we are close
The things that we do for that special event
Are only much good on the day they are sent
Why give chocolates that they should not eat
Plants that may cause allergies are not so neat
Cards covered with verse, red cupids and heart
Would mean nothing if there was only a start
To do those little things throughout the year
That might please enough to bring out a tear
This poem may be late for Valentines day
But the intent to do little things all year may
Be better than chocolates or cards or flowers
To brighten a time filled with cold winter showers
Remember this little Valentine rhyme



It give me pleasure to Joyce to say
Have a good and Happy Valentine's day
A day of cards and hearts and sweet
But not as sweet as when we meet
To see you is like a rising sun
You are such a dear and full of fun
How can two people be so alike
And yet as different as day and night
You so proud to be from the bay
And I from up North Mountain way
You have been another's gentle mate
And I somewhat of a reprobate
You make me feel like a lucky boy
And when together you share your joy
When you think of me sometime
Remember this little Valentine rhyme





Edd Twohig, Business/Employment History

In the early years growing up on a farm there were always chores, planting and harvesting to keep a young one out of trouble. The first introduction to entrepreneurship was at age 13. The farmer next door had, 2 years earlier, a small apple orchard, that had become inefficient, pulled out by the roots. In walking past these dried trees it occurred that this was a very dry wood that would be welcomed as firewood. I approached the farmer and proposed to cut this wood into cord wood length and keep ½ the wood for the work. For that summer it resulted in hourly earnings in excess of that of a skilled tradesman, and my first bank account at a branch where I still maintain an account.
Teenage years included part time work in small businesses of woodworking, junk dealer, grocery store and my grandfathers lumber mill. As an indicator of my future profession, at one point (age 16) I was the chief tally for loading ships of lumber to England. This entailed tallying truckloads of lumber and at night calculating the delivery to the ship of the loads from my truck and those of 3 others tallys. Then, when the ship was loaded, reconciling the total cargo with that calculated by the ship.
After working in, and eventually winding up, the family automobile, truck and farm equipment dealership, I became an apprentice at the firm of Chartered Accountants that served the family business. At that time the regimen of an apprentice was work days and study nights. Upon attaining the degree of Chartered Accountant, I was immediately chosen to open a new branch office. Advancement to partnership followed as the firm grew to 20 branches. That firm is now the Canadian partner to the International Grant Thornton firm.
While practicing in a predominately fishing area I advised a group of 4 of my clients to join in filling a need for a fish meal processing plant, a business of which I had gained both financial and operating knowledge with a client in another area. Total responsibility for feasibility, design supervision, equipment procurement and financing fell to me. At the last moment, one of the clients backed out, so I invested the 25% interest meant for them. The responsibility for management of the plant continued, on a fee for service basis for any time that was devoted thereto during office hours, until its sale.
The plant had a throughput of 5 tons per hour of raw material. The industry had always packaged the product in bags for delivery to animal feed plants. Our product brokers were asked to see if ours could be delivered in bulk. They did nothing, so I went directly to a chain of feed mills that were very willing to set up bulk facilities. That reduced our staff, of an already efficient plant, to one person, and increased our bottom line by 10% on sales. I subsequently negotiated sale of this plant to National Sea Products, who had several processing plants in eastern Canada, New Hampshire and Florida.
Another large fish processing client had me do the feasibility, projections, financing application, design supervision and equipment purchase for a 15 ton per hour fishmeal plant. Interestingly, this client had come to my professional accounting office to take over his account. They had been poorly served by their lawyer as well as by their accountant. I selected a new law firm for them and worked with that firm to reorganize about 15 controlled corporations into a more efficient organization.
This client asked me to join them  in order to establish a 40-ton per hour fishmeal plant in Newfoundland. In order to secure experienced fish meal plant operating personnel, I negotiated a common stock exchange for a 5-ton per hour plant. My duties were as project manager as well as for the feasibility, projections, financing, etc. of the new plant plus management of the purchased plant. The new plant construction was more complicated than a normal project since the bulk of materials and equipment were purchased and landed at site by cargo vessel. As well, it was necessary to negotiate construction of a higher capacity power line of 50 miles to the site and to negotiate with government to have a bridge strengthened to move our heavy equipment to site. After start up and a full operating season, my interests in the company were sold to Minas Basin Pulp and Power (a Canadian holding company) who had a previous investment in a fish meal operation, and with whom both my father and grandfather, as well a I, had done business.
I kept the 5-ton per hour plant as part of the deal. The plant was rebuilt to eliminate down time and bulk product handling was added. This was a seasonal operation on schedule of 2 - 12 hour shifts per day, 6 days per week, including one 12-hour shift for weekly maintenance. For a few years the seasonal operation was under plant managers, during which time I turned to management consulting. Later, following resignation from the engineering firm,(mentioned below) I operated the plant myself for a season and then, over 18 months, negotiated sale to the St Simon Island, SC, SeaPak division, of Rich Foods.

As a consultant with my old accounting firm, assignments provided a broad experience in public utility rate setting and capital projects, government planning, business advisory services and as the project evaluator of applications for establishing industrial development projects for Cape Breton Development. These applications came from many parts of Eastern Canada and USA for the manufacture of varied products including nails, rope, pens and bread. These were busy times, such that, on one occasion, my wife came to the airport with clean clothes as I changed flights. One memorable consulting assignment was to examine a woodwork manufacturing plant and building material outlet. My first weekly progress meeting with the owner gave a preliminary report that the manager was light on staff organization and delegation. To my surprise, returning on Monday, the manager had been fired and had left. The next two weeks required reorganization and establishing management responsibility centers and functional controls with the existing, and capable, staff.
One assignment was to partner with a firm of consulting engineers on a proposal for a 25-year fishing industry development plan for Trinidad and Tobago. My inclusion of a computerized financial plan and sensitivity analysis made an attractive proposal to the government officials and was well received in our report. The engineering firm, Canplan Consultants Limited, next asked my collaboration in submitting proposals to the World Bank for 2 projects in Yemen, design and construction management of a fish processing plant and a preliminary study for a harbor and community development. We were selected for both projects and I joined the firm as Vice President, responsible for project management of the projects and also for international business development, as well as input on other projects as required. In one year this resulted in over 165 days overseas. We also established a travel agency for which I was Management Director. The company growth was too rapid for its available capital resources. I negotiated amalgamation with a stronger engineering firm but it fell through because of negative action by our company president. This prompted my resignation and allowed a short time in retirement, mostly sailing, then managing and selling my fish meal plant.
During the period of management consulting with the Chartered Accounting and Engineering firms, while on an engagement with the telephone company, an association was developed with a communication technical expert. He involved me, as the financial partner, with a cable television franchise application. We were awarded the license for Metrovision Limited. I then applied for a regional license in my own name, but did not have enough political connections to be awarded the license. We did go forward as consultants in 3 other successful applications and as partners in a fourth. Sale of ownership interests in the cable companies provided the normal negotiation challenges.

While searching for another business venture, a pre-cast concrete manufacturing company being operated by trustees, following the untimely death of the young owner, was attractive. I did the investigation and valuation and after a few months my offer was accepted. The manager was capable but had not changed from the unsophisticated business practices of the young owner. We undertook rationalization of a product line that included unprofitable castings. Also, a computer and software were added and a standard product costing control system introduced. Following the retirement of the manager, the company was operated and expanded by my sons. We negotiated sale to a large local construction company.
Shortly after leaving the engineering firm, at a meeting with my securities broker, (who grew up in the same small town), at a time when a Provincial election had been called, he said, “ You are going to run as candidate for the Nova Scotia legislature in Kings North”. I said “ But I have not lived there for 25 years”. He replied, based on my parents and family reputation, “ But the name is good”. The result was, my election for that and also for one subsequent election, but I did not offer for a third term. I served on several Legislative Committees including one to establish legislation supporting Venture Capital Corporations. Then, following the old adage “Put your money where your mouth is” I attracted partners and raised the money to start a small regional Venture Capital Company. This did a number of deals and by the time I moved to the USA I had acquired 100% ownership and then sold the last investment to a firm from France. After retiring from elected office, I renewed my bankruptcy trustee license and practiced until relocating in the USA.
I sub contracted and managed international fisheries projects until my wife and I took over the restoration of a property, constructed in 1745 with additions in 1821 and 1875, that my stepson had purchased and started to renovate as a Bed and Breakfast.  This was then sold back to him, and subsequently, I returned to run the Inn for him for 5 years.
Then in 2011 and 2012, I was sole parent, cook, housekeeper and driver of 2 Grandchildren, age 11 and 12. Apart from accepting an occasional personal request for business assistance, I have dedicated myself to thinking and writing about legislation and administration of Governments.


The Potato Year

Father was in the trucking business and one year when potato prices were very low he was forced to take some potatoes in trade for fall trucking. These seed potatoes had to be cut so that the eyes were showing because each piece of potato with as eye could be planted to start a new plant. During the winter, when trucking was slow, the truck drivers would cut the seed for planting in the spring. They were treated with the lime to keep them from spoiling after they'd been cut. Next spring things were very busy in the trucking business and father didn't get a chance to plant any of these potatoes until early July. He was able to get the land all cultivated in the springtime but didn't have a chance to plant the potatoes. This was extremely late to put potatoes in the ground, but apparently they grew quite well.

That fall the trucking was very busy right up into late October and he didn't get a chance to harvest these potatoes until after a late October snowfall fell. Luckily in November the snow melted and the land dried out a bit and he was able to go in with a potato digger and dig these potatoes. I was eight or nine at that time and going to the one room Highbury school. Father hired some help from Meadow View to pick these potatoes but he also let some of us kids from the school pick as well. The potatoes were picked up and put in baskets and then dumped in the back of a dump truck where they were taken to the barn and dumped through a hole down into the barn cellar, The barn celler was about 9 feet high and about 20 feet wide and probably 40 feet deep so it would hold a lot of potatoes.

Everyone who was picking potatoes was being paid an hourly wage. It only took a couple of days for father to realize that we kids from the school were picking potatoes a lot faster than those from Meadow View. I guess we kids were small enough and close enough to the ground that we were able to pick up the potatoes faster than the adults. So we kids from school got to pick up all the rest of the potatoes.

Every thing worked well for father that year. Ever after being planted rather late in the summer the quality of the potatoes was very high. They had lots of heat and sunshine to grow and then in October this snow covered them and protected them from any frost until the November thaw came. Also, the price was very high for potatoes that year since they had been so cheap the year before, many farmers had not replanted them.

That big barn cellar full of the potatoes also provided good work for the truck drivers when there was no trucking to do during the winter. They would go down in the barn cellar and sprout and pick them up and put them in bags. Then once a week father would load a truck load of potatoes and take two or three truck drivers and go to Halifax and peddle the potatoes door to door. This gave him the advantage not only of a high wholesale price but he was able to realize the retail markup as well.



Politicking in earlier days

Earlier times were different times. Maybe worse, maybe better. Was a little bit of rum at election times worse than the input of massive special interest finances now? There was fun with the rum, where is the fun now? The fun may be gone with the lack of involvement by young people today. Young people are leaving politics to the speech writers, the professional organizers and the spin masters and by doing so are giving up influence over politicians and government. If I have one message for the disillusioned young voters, it is this, put your youth and enthusiasm where it can count, bring the democratic process back to the personnel level of earlier days. Make sure that you vote and even better, GET INVOLVED IN POLITICS.

I lot of people tell you the old evils of rum for votes. The rum of those earlier days did not assure the vote. What got the vote was the effort of workers like you. People who were dissatisfied with their member, his party or the government in general. Those who said enough is enough! Those who were not satisfied to sit back and complain. Those who said, I can make a difference. Those who made sure that they are heard. That’s what brings better government.

Lets look back at the rum of my fathers' day. There was rum by the keg. 100 proof rum smuggled in from St. Pierre, usually watered down to go farther, and siphoned or poured into pint bottles. There could be some skulduggery too, usually harmless and funny, unless you were of the party that lost the poll. Like the time that the poll captain of the little mountain area was given some full strength rum at breakfast time by friends of the other party and slept through most of the election day, while his voters were convinced to vote for the other party.

An automobile, a big Buick, brought me into Politics. I was about 18 and working as an apprentice, working days and studying at night. The boss asked me to drive his car on election day for the political party of his choice. WOW, drive that fancy car for the whole day. I drove people to the polls, and I listened and observed. And it was fun and it felt good to be in the center of things.

Four years later I was back in Kings County. The Governing party had been in power Federally for about 15 years and Provincially for 22 years. That is too long for any party. Thanks to the Party Politics system, there was a core of party faithful left to organize and mentor we dissatisfied young people. I was fortunate to have Goldie Delaney, a Quaker Oats salesman, take Claude Rodgers and I under his wing. We accepted responsibility to run a pole that had voted for the same party every election since confederation. He told us to take the voters list, and visit each voter at least twice, tell them why we were supporting our candidate and “ask them to vote for our candidate”. If we were not sure how they were going to vote, call on them again.

Needless to say our funding was a small fraction of that of our opponents, as was our supply of rum. This was where I learned that rum did not matter. What mattered was that we cared about our mission and about the people we visited. We did have rum, but unlike the opposition, very little. If we took a pint from our back pocket, we passed it over for a drink took it back and took a sip ourselves (or pretended to) and then put it back in the pocket and only took it out again if we did not want to offend. 

When we told the headquarters on the night before the election that we would win the poll by a couple of votes. They said we were crazy. The next day someone from headquarters observed me marking positive for voters being driven to the poll by our opponents cars. I said “Yes but they are voting for us”. After the count that night, we had indeed won our poll. And this proved to me that passing out rum did nothing to assure the vote. We did not like the practice of having rum and joined the efforts to phase it out, but it took a decade or two from that election.

The political worker must believe in and be involve in the selection of the candidate. In order to convince others, one must be convinced of the ability and depth of character of the candidate they are talking about. While campaigning for one provincial candidate, that I rated extremely capable, I declined to have him campaign with me. His depth of knowledge was so broad and he was so willing to answer in depth, that there was just not enough time to call on enough people. I could extol his capability many times in the time he took to explain the history of the party.

Politics has been called a game. In as much as it is fun to be involved in, it is. But win or loose it is the basis of our political democracy. The choice of political parties is a personal choice, and always of lesser importance than friends and family. I recall one time when my parents were staying with my grandparents and I spied, side by side on the shelf, delegates badges to two different political conventions, one Mothers and one Grandfathers. I fondly remember when a senior party member visited me during an election and gave me $100.00 (about $500.00 now) but said, this is not to be spent during the campaign, that is for a party for your workers after it is all over. And we had a party, a joint party with our opposing workers of the other political party. We had all worked hard for our candidate, but win or loose, the voters had made their choice and we were still all friends and neighbors.



No tax system based merely on income earned can be simple, fair or good economics. Income earned is an individual’s remuneration for what he/she has done or has supplied to others. Income is a measurement of productive contribution to the nation as a whole. Ones' income, until it is spent, provides only a potential to benefit from one’s production. Is it fair to tax a taxpayer before the taxpayer receives any actual/measurable benefit from their work? Clearly no. Therefore in the interest of fairness, tax is better levied on consumption, on the actual benefit realized from earned income.

Our nation, and its citizens, benefit from their combined savings and investment. By taxing income, we reduce that portion that would otherwise be saved and thus invested. Through the accumulation of wealth and therefore economic expansion, savings and investment directly benefits others, not the investor who has, by investing, deferred benefit. Production and savings should be encouraged and wasteful consumption discouraged. By taxing consumption, not production, at an increasing rate as consumption increases, the same as with tax on income, individuals’ decisions to spend or not spend would determine their tax burden.

Historically, the introduction of an income tax was within the economic understanding and bureaucratic ability of the early 20th century. Economic understanding and bureaucratic ability, as well as the global economic and technological realities, have changed, and this necessitates a move to a more efficient, fairer and effective tax collection system. A graduated rate of tax, as with that on income, on the total amount that is spent, would both be fair and be seen to be fair. In the end, the more lavish the life style, the higher the rate, the bigger the tax bite. Simplicity would result from a person’s need to answer only 3 related questions in determining the taxable base: What did I receive? What did I save and invest? What did I consume?

This tax solution has been variously referred to as a cash flow (or cash equivalent) tax. The method of tax calculation determines consumption through a simple yearly cash flow analysis: annual cash earned plus cash received from past savings and investment, minus savings and investments made during the year. The simplicity of determining consumption would, as stated above, reduce inefficiency of collection and would also reduce errors and, psychologically, reduce hostility towards the yearly ritual. Some of this hostility is generated by the counter-intuitive nature of taxing work and not enjoyment, discussed above as lack of fairness. Current record keeping now provides the information necessary to determine what a person 1) receives, and 2) saves and invests.

One of the most complicated elements of the current tax rules is the allocation of incomes or expenses between taxation periods. If I may relate a personal experience which highlights this problem: a sensible wage earner indicated that his neighbor took home less money than him, but paid more income tax. The neighbor had a small but expanding business whose financing of new equipment, a larger inventory, unpaid customer accounts, etc. were all financed from what was left after paying income tax. My wage earning friend said, “That is crazy! He is doing just what our country needs, making jobs and building our economy”. Indeed, why should the small businessman pay more tax when his family has less on the table? This catch-22 is true of all other savings and investment. Why should tax be paid before the taxpayer receives any benefit? The benefit is by personally consuming the wealth received. Savings in a bank account is of benefit to the saver only when it is withdrawn from savings and in some way enjoyed, until then, it is of benefit to some other individual, organization or Government.

The cost of this solution to the government is nil, in fact administrative savings would be noticeable. The consumption tax rates would be set at whatever rates would provide the amount of tax necessary to support government expenditure programs, just as rates are set for income tax. This rate could easily be set as revenue neutral.

On the other hand, there would be immediate and practical time savings to the taxpayer. The hours saved and the frustrations avoided by everyone who files a tax return, and the frustrations avoided, would be substantial and, in some way, beyond a monetary valuation. Additionally, costs of professional and technical services to comply with complicated tax rules would no longer be necessary. As the mechanisms for tax determination and collection with this tax solution would be significantly less complex than the current tax procedures, efficiency would be realized. Redeployment of resources and professional talent from preparation, enforcement and collection to more productive endeavors would strengthen the national economy.

Another sizable advantage to the economy by taxing consumption would rest in redressing the current inequity of effectively taxing imported goods and services less than domestically produced goods and services. Goods and services produced in Canada, by Canadians, now bear a cost of government that imported ones do not, though these imported goods enjoy the same benefits of the Canadian political framework. By and large, costs of maintaining government services are currently recovered through added cost of domestic, individual and corporate, production. Imported goods and services do not share in supporting Canadian governments and institutions, nor do they include much of the cost for the provision of equal government services to their workers. Although domestic taxation of consumption would not completely correct this imbalance, it would help draw attention to the advantage of production in Canada, which now relies on excessive exploitation of its natural resources to pay for excessive consumption of foreign goods.



The irrelevance of our vote in today's Democracy is well portrayed in the recent books by or about former elected representatives. They, representatives at both Federal and Provincial Governments, point out the extent of their control by their Political Parties and their irrelevance as elected representatives. The Political Parties spend millions of dollars of voters money on advertising in order to promote (sell) party and leader. We choose our member like we choose a can of tomatoes. We do not use our minds to think and we then end up with elected representatives who do not use their minds to think.

The book “Shopping for Votes” by Susan Delacourt traces the sad development of control of our minds by the polling and advertising professionals. Edward Bernays wrote “- - - we are dominated by a relatively small number of persons . . . it is they who pull the wires which control the public mind”.

It seems that the minds of our citizens are so controlled, or their minds are so lazy, that they do not care that our economy, our middle class, our whole society is being allowed to be destroyed. How can we, you and I, sit back and knowingly pass on the debt, excessive depletion of resources, pollution and diminished moral standards to our grandchildren. All we have to do is take back control of our minds, use those minds and elect independent members to do what is right, not what is political.

It is astounding that we are actually paying the polling, branding, propaganda and advertising costs that enable the few to control our minds. We, the taxpayers, pay the electioneering costs, the public relation costs of Government, the tax deductions for political donations, the wasteful costs of Constituency offices. All that should be needed to enable voters to make the decision of which candidate to vote for is the printing cost for a statement of the qualifications and position on policies of the candidates from whom we must select our representative. With this information readily available, there would surely be enough citizens who would carry out their responsibility to make a seriously considered choice of representative. Advertising should be limited, within a constituency, only for a candidate, by money raised within that constituency.

Our political masters have added this mind control to the “bread and circus” controls of olden days. Our citizens are kept satisfied and docile by a standard of living which will be paid for by future citizens. They are provided hope by lotteries, casinos and the stock market. Their attention is drawn away from their civic responsibilities, by the circuses, the entertainment, the sports, and ,the opiate of the masses, TV. Canada need not follow the USA and England on the road to a 25 year depression, now being forecast by some economists. We are small enough and rural enough to make the necessary basic changes in our Democracy. But first we must take back of control our minds, get rid of the Political elite, the Political Parties, and elect thinkers who care more for their country than for the next election.


The following quotation has been around for at least 100 years. “ A democracy is always temporary in nature; It simply cannot exist as a permanent form of government. A democracy will continue to exist up until the time that voters discover that they can vote themselves generous gifts from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates who promise the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that every democracy will finally collapse over loose fiscal policy, which is always followed by a dictatorship.” Our current political parties have been making such promises, but delivering to the few, for some time, inviting the collapse of our society at any time.

The cover of the book “Irresponsible Government”, by Brent Rathgeber, states “a Canadian prime minister with a majority is now able to run the government practically as a dictator”. The political parties have been engendering a form of dictatorship by our political leaders, with their increasing power of decision making and control, which is in turn controlled by a political party, in turn controlled by those who provide the funding required for marketing and advertising of the promises of benefits from the public treasury. Such Dictatorship can never be “Benevolent”. Such Dictatorship is based on Money and profits, not the welfare of people.

It may be that only a Benevolent Dictator that can accomplish the basic reforms necessary to save our society. Without control by the favoured elite, a benevolent dictator might dictate to:

  1. Abolish “income tax”, the tax on work and production. No one should pay tax on the income they earn for what they do for others, and the wealth they produce for their society.
  2. Establish a graduated tax on standard of living, “consumption”. That which people consume, which comes from the wealth of our country, that has been created from our human and natural resources.
  3. Pay a “reverse of the standard of living tax” which would assure all citizens sufficient funds to provide a basic living. Every Canadian who enjoys the benefits of our society would be responsible for the basic needs of those unable to provide the same for themselves. Canada already has a “reverse income tax” in the form of the “Canada Child Tax Benefits”.
  4. Eliminate the multitude of administrative “programes”, applying different rules to different needs, and simply pay those in need with weekly cash (debit card) money sufficient for a minimum “standard of living”. The present degrading bureaucratic determination of individual need and payment monthly, degrades individuals and wastes administrative costs. To expect adequate budgeting of funds received monthly is not possible for many, especially those with minimum funds.
  5. Protect citizens from loss of home by financial institutions which have burdened the homeowners with debt beyond their reasonable ability to make the payments.
  6. Cancel all consumer debt created by finance charges and penalties and any debt not secured by assets. Funds recovered by bankruptcy or receivership would be allocated to creditors, firstly in full to the first loan made, then to other loans in order. Limit rates of interest or finance charges to a fixed spread over the rate paid on deposits.
  7. Restrict the expenditure of public treasury funds for advanced education to only that education which may be beneficial to the society as a whole. Support people not institutions or programes. In a country importing skills for its development and maintenance, public funds should first be committed to filling those needs.
  8. Abandon the concept of Government administered health services. Assure that those who need necessary care are provided the financial resources that they are unable to provide by themselves. Support people not programs. Assure that consumption of health services remains a personal responsibility with control remaining with individuals, those who know and realize the benefit paid for them. Require that an amount equal to 10% of annual income of an individual or family be paid toward their annual health care costs.



What a wonderful thing it is to be

Married for half a century

With me, Joyce, they have shared that time

I want them to know much pleasure is mine

David fell in love with this English lass

Who was and still is a lady with class

Joey followed him across the Atlantic ocean

To Quebec and then became a Nova Scotian

Joey and Joyce have this friendship true

Since the house was bought on Rosemount Avenue

It was in this house they raised daughters four

Who increased the happy family by eight more

Although David loves the family well

His love of Cocker spaniels is easy to tell

Both Joey and David are talented marvels

Seeing much of the world in their travels

They both entertain with considerable charm

On their beautiful Saint John River farm

They are such a loving compassionate pair

I know when I am with them they really care

That I pray for God to bless them richly

For many years beyond the fifty.